Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Many Meanings of the French Subject Pronoun On

The Many Meanings of the French Subject Pronoun On More often than not, the modern uses of the French subject pronoun â€Å"on† is a mystery to students of French. Traditional methods teach that â€Å"on† means â€Å"one†. But in today’s French, â€Å"on† is mostly used instead of â€Å"we†. Actually, â€Å"we† is becoming more and more formal, used mostly for writing. When speaking, we use â€Å"on†. Here is how â€Å"on† works 1. On = 3rd person singular verb (ilverb form) The first thing to understand when it comes to â€Å"on†, is that no matter its meaning, â€Å"on† will ALWAYS take a 3rd person singular verb form, like â€Å"il† and â€Å"elle†. On doit, on a, on peut... We must, we have, we can... 2. On = one, people (you) This is the old explanation for â€Å"on†. Honestly, how often do you use the English â€Å"one† in a sentence? So â€Å"on† is the â€Å"impersonal, the unspecific† subject pronoun, but watch out! It’s not at all the same thing as â€Å"it† in English, which refers to a thing or an animal. â€Å"On† always refers to a person. On doit bien chercher - One has to look carefullyOn peut louer une voiture - it’s possible to rent a car In this meaning, you could also translate â€Å"on† as â€Å"people†, or even â€Å"you† - not meaning â€Å"you† in particular, but an unspecific â€Å"you†... that would be a bit more modern than â€Å"one†! En geÃŒ neÃŒ ral, quand on a des enfants, on a une voiture - in general, when people/you have children, people/you have a car. 3. On = we in spoken French Watch out though! When on means we, the verb is still an â€Å"il† form, not a â€Å"nous† form. Olivier et moi, on est contents - Olivier and I, we are happy NOT Olivier et moi on sommes contents. On est, never on sommes. Using on to say we is the most common way of saying â€Å"we† in French nowadays. I use it all the time, so do my parents, so it’s very, very much used this way. â€Å"Nous† is more formal, used in writing or in a formal context. But dont get me wrong, nous is very used as well, and you still need to learn to conjugate the nous verb form! 4. On and the adjective agreements When â€Å"on† means â€Å"we†, the adjective, if any, will agree in number and gender with the true meaning of â€Å"on†: so it will be plural for sure, feminine or masculine. On est contents - we are happyOn n’est pas treÌ€s sportifs - we are not very sporty When â€Å"on† means â€Å"one, you, people†, or an unspecific person, it’s usually masculine singular. Quand on est sportif, on est pas fatigueÃŒ  - when you are sporty, you are not tired. But you have to be smart, and stay focused on the context. Sometime, this unspecific person could only be feminine... Quand on est enceinte, on est fatigueÃŒ e - when you are pregnant, you are tired How To Train to Understand On? If you are serious about learning French, I strongly suggest you find a good French learning audio method. Written French and spoken French are like two different languages, and you need audio - and someone who can not only list the grammar points but explain them well - to conquer French. I suggest you take a look at  my own French learning method  as well as my article on the  Best French tools for the self-learning student. For more about French subject pronouns, I suggest you read my lessons: - introduction to French subject pronouns which will answer questions such as what is a subject pronoun, how to figure out the subject in French? What does the first person plural mean? and other useful information for you to understand the grammatical jargon French books and teachers use. - Singular French subject pronouns for a detailed study of je, tu, il and elle. -  Plural French subject pronouns for a detailed study of nous, vous, ils and elles. I post exclusive mini lessons, tips, pictures and more daily on my Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest  pages - so join me there! https://www.facebook.com/frenchtoday https://twitter.com/frenchtoday https://www.pinterest.com/frenchtoday/

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Capitalism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Capitalism - Assignment Example Various companies reduced their labour force while others fully shut down leading to massive loss of employment. The economic depression led to loss of business and closing down of many businesses, which led to decline in tax revenues. Many organizations and individuals were also unable to pay their taxes, which made things worse. Prices of goods and services also declined, and profits not witnessed. Crop production fell with most farms affected by drought, which saw the fall in crop prices. The hardships witnessed and non-remittance of taxes forced people out of their homes creating a situation of homelessness. Situation of unemployment and homelessness seriously affected the poor in the society. The economic activities in many countries were markedly affected with many sectors facing problems. Construction industry in many countries slowed and even stopped owing to materials and labor force needed. Farming in a rural setting was also affected by drought and financial inability. Farmers were not able to pay off debt accrued from production expenses due to poor production and fall in crop prices. Among the sectors affected is the mining and logging sectors, which faced drastic, negative effects due to decline in demand for its products, most were forced to cut down on their activities with others closing up, which further affected unemployment. The ending of the great depression was witnessed by different countries at different times, but it was with the advent of WWII. There is believe that government spending in the war stimulated the economies of various nations. The war required production of various products to be used in the war and agricultural goods to be consumed. The sourcing of labor to participate in the war aided in solving the unemployment problem. Women and men who did not participate in the war also got the opportunity to work in the local industries (Maddison, 2007).

Monday, February 10, 2020

Kuwait and US Universities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Kuwait and US Universities - Essay Example Education is funded by the Federal, State and Local governments. Education up to high school is compulsory from the ages of five to eighteen. In Kuwait education is funded by the government, and has 8-9 years of compulsory schooling for all children, The Kuwait evaluation and certification system is adopted from the British and American curriculum and the government usually hires teachers from these two countries. This has resulted in developing a comprehensive education system that takes the specific requirements of the region into consideration and educates the youth by consultation and their active participation in the education process. The system also strengthens communication and propagation for reform and addresses â€Å"technical details† for the proper implementation of the education system in the context of recent innovations in technology and the social sciences. In the States education is easily available, with school curricula, funding, funding and policy matters being determined by the school board which has jurisdiction over all schools in its district, with guidance from state legislatures School districts are separate from other local legal authority, with independent budgets and officials.Decisions for educational and testing standards are made by the state government. ... The government of Kuwait provides scholarships for students who qualify and are accepted by Universities in the West, especially in the United States and Britain. In the United States, the age for compulsory education varies with states, and the requirements for essential education is met by educating children in public state certified schools. In most schools in America, education is carried out at three levels, elementary, middle and high school. In all levels children are divided by age, and the exact range of students in different grade levels is different from state to state and area to area. Kuwait has made tremendous strides in education considering that there was absolutely no formal education available at the beginning of the 20th century. Education consisted of a few religious schools that taught reading the Quran, including some basic writing and arithmetic. Because of revenues from oil exports, Kuwait prospered and the government started providing formal education to its citizens. This greatly encouraged education and by 1950 there were more than 65,000 boys and girls studying in many schools. In 1965m following the implementation of a formal constitution for the country, education was considered a basic right for all citizens, and was made compulsory for children between the ages of 6 to 14. The Ministry of Education in Kuwait has prepared a long term education strategy up to the year 2025, to prepare its citizens for life in an increasingly globalised world. The government is also providing training for women to promote female participation in the affairs of the country. In the United States there are more than 85 million students enrolled from kindergarten to graduate schools. Amongst them a few million were also studying in private

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Haitian and American Revolutions Essay Example for Free

Haitian and American Revolutions Essay While the revolutions in colonial America and Haiti had many parallels, they were also unique in their own ways. In both revolutions, the rebels revolted against a foreign superpower that was in a weakened economic state in order to gain economic and social freedom. However, the Haiti revolution stressed freedom for everybody (including slaves), whereas the American Revolution focused more on the needs of the Bourgeois, or middle class. The revolutions in both of these countries would have been unsuccessful were it not for the crippling problems faced by both opposing superpowers. The success of the Haitian revolution was due in no small part to the political turmoil brought about by the French revolution. This weakened the ability of the colonial administrators in Haiti to maintain order and caused the authority of colonial officials to no longer be clear; even the very legitimacy of slavery was even being challenged in France. The turmoil in France and Haiti paved the way for a struggle between the elite plantation owners and the free black slave owners. This fighting in turn gave the slaves, under the leadership of Toussaint LOuverture, the unheard of opportunity to revolt against their owners and emancipate themselves from a brutal system of bondage (Corbet). The revolution in the Americans was against its mother country, Great Britain, and unlike Haiti, the British army was in full force when war broke. There were, however, economic weaknesses that led to the inevitable revolution against Britain. Britain was burdened by debts from the French and Indian War, and therefore taxed the colonies substantially to make up for this. The ideologies of the revolutions in both Haiti and America were very similar. In America, philosophers such as Thomas Paine and John Locke preached social and economic freedom. Thomas Paine writes, And he hath shown himself such an inveterate enemy to liberty, and discovered such a thirst for arbitrary power, is he, or is he not, a proper person to say to these colonies, you shall make no laws but what I please!' (Overfield, 198). This represents the opinion of many revolutionaries: that they should be allowed to rule on their own and not be taxed and forced into things by a  ruler thousands of miles away. Also, these philosophers believed in the idea of unalienable rights for men. The Declaration states, We hold these truths to be [sacred and undeniable] self evident, that all men are created equal and independent; that from that equal creation they derive in rights inherent and inalienables, among which are the preservation of life, and liberty and the pursuit of happiness (Maier). The colonists believed that everyone with land should have a chance to pursue happiness, and that the British monarchy wasnt allowing them this freedom. They also proclaimed that taxation without representation was a denial of the rights they deserved. The bourgeois class brought up this claim to get more economical freedom and rights. Acts passed by the Parliament such as the Stamp Act limited the economic potential of this middle class. Thomas Paine talked of how no immigrants would move to the colonies of the government was not allowed to be independent and thrive (Overfield, 198). Although this would help the middle class gain more money and thrive, the lower class including the slaves would be unaffected. These slaves were not to be given any rights or improvements from their previous lifestyle. In Haiti before the revolution, slaves also had no rights or say in their lives. With Frances being in a state of turmoil, a window opened for a chance to rid of their masters and grasp a life unheard of to slaves of this era. All they needed was a leader: someone to bring them together and unite them in this noble cause, and for them, this man was Toussaint LOuverture. With the slave owners fighting and in disarray, the slaves rose up and fought hard for a better life. LOuverture might have grasped the idea of economic independence, but the slaves only goal was social freedom. Many fought to the death because they welcomed death as a change from the terrible lives they had been living. This revolution was to give inalienable rights to all, including slaves, instead of just to the bourgeois class as had been done in America. In the Haitian revolution, the slaves revolted against the wealthy plantation owners. Details of these events are shown with illustrations that were  created from British admirer Marcus Rainsfords own sketches. Rainsford depicted him through his portraits almost as if he were a deity a countenance bold and striking, yet full of the most prepossessing suavity terrible to an enemy, but inviting to the objects of his friendship or his love. The rebellious slaves eventually gained the upper hand under the leadership of LOuverture (Rainsford). LOuverture then led an invasion of neighboring Saint Domingo where he continued to liberate slaves. In 1802, Napoleon, the leader of France, sent a large military force and fought the rebel forces. The resistance persisted, and the slaves eventually gained independence by defeating Napoleon. LOuverture was captured and sent to France, where he died in prison. One might wonder what he was thinking as when he was there. A letter, or a journal written by him might provide insight into the mind of this influential revolutionary. The American Revolution started with boycotts to repeal unjust measures such as the Stamp Act. These passions intensified into riots, which were portrayed in the Boston Tea Party, where rebels dumped 10,000 pounds of tea into the river to protest high tea taxes. The Boston Massacre also incited hatred towards the King of Britain, King George III (Middlekauff 712). All these factors escalated and came to a climax when war was declared against the British. In the early stages of the revolution, minutemen, ordinary colonists, were used in the battles. Eventually, strong military leaders organized the colonists into a fighting machine and the colonists were able to surround the British at Yorktown, thus gaining their independence Bibliography Corbett, Bob. The Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803. 21 Mar. 2001. Webster University. http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/revolution/revolution1.htm. Maier, Pauline. American Scripture Making the Declaration of Independence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. Maier 235-241. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. Vol. II of the Oxford History of the United States. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1982. Overfield, Andrea. The Human Record Sources of Global History. Vol. 2. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Overfield 194-198. Rainsford, Marcus. An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti: Comprehending a View of the Pricipal Transactions in the Revolution of Saint Domingo; With its Ancient and Modern State. London: James Cundee, 1803.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Shadow Of A Doubt Essay examples -- essays research papers

Shadow of a Doubt Shadow of a Doubt is an Alfred Hitchcock film that was shot on location in the 1940's town of Santa Rosa, California. The town itself is representative of the ideal of American society. However, hidden within this picturesque community dark corruption threatens to engulf a family. The tale revolves around Uncle Charlie, a psychotic killer whose namesake niece, a teenager girl named Charlie, is emotionally thrilled by her Uncles arrival. However her opinion slowly changes as she probes into her mysterious uncle. In the film, director/producer Alfred Hitchcock blends conventions of film noir with those of a small town domestic comedy as a means of commenting on the contradictions in American values. In the beginning the film is immediately set up in the film noir style. Under the opening credits a shadowy backround image is shown kaleidoscopically. Couples dressed in elegant ballroom gowns and suits waltz together dizzyingly as the "Merry Widow Waltz" plays. The scene has nothing to do with the drama to follow (until Charlie's crimes are revealed.) The titles dissolve in to a panoramic view of a bridge, further dissolves take us first to junkyard and then to a scene of children playing in the street. The city is shown as a dirty, dark place. We are taken to a Philadelphia rooming house (shown with a number 13 on the door.) Inside we are introduced to "Uncle Charlie" (Joseph Cotten). He is reclining stiffly in bed during the day in a seedy room. . He plays with the phallic cigar that he is smoking, seemingly bitter and cynical. On the bedside table next to seemingly indifferent and fatigued man is and an open billfold with a carelessly strewn pile of bill s on top (some of the bills have fallen to the floor and lie strewn around). The overweight, middle-aged landlady knocks on the door and enters, identifying him as Mr. Spencer and informing him that two men have been asking for him. As per his instructions to not disturb him, she didn't let them in, however, they have not left, instead they retreated to the street corner to stake out the boarding house. Noticing that he looks exhausted and depressed (he passively remains on his bed during their entire conversation), she suggests that he should get some rest. Then she notices his money cluttered all about and hurries forward to straighten it ... ...of all responsibility (for, of course, there is no way that a normal person could ever kill.) In keeping with this principle the film attempts to absolve Young Charlie from all responsibility in her Uncle's death, for it is seen as an accident that occurred when Young Charlie was fighting her Uncle in self-defence. In the final stages of the film we are brought back to the small town introduced to us in the beginning, this time, however, it is in morning for a beloved son. Charlie's death has brought Graham back to Young Charlie. We can see the good side has won the battle for her. As in early situational Charlie has learned her moral lesson and the episode may end. This paper has attempted to investigate the ways in which Alfred Hitchcock blended conventions of film noir with those of a small town domestic comedy. It first looked at the opening scenes of the film in which the two conventions were introdruced. It then went on to analyse the film with the aid of Robin Wood's article Ideology, Genre, Auteur. From these two forms we can see that film noir and small town comedy were used as a means of commenting on the contradictions in American values.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

The constitution 1850-1861

There were many causes for the separation of the union. Many people argue that the Constitution, which was a symbol of the national unity, contributed to its division. This is true in some ways, but it did not happen immediately. Many events, such as the passing of the Fugitive Slave and Kentucky-Nebraska Acts, gradually built up the tension between North and South, until the union collapsed. Even though the Compromise of 1850 was meant to solve the crisis, it only created more tension between the north and south.The main purposes of the compromise were to admit California into the union as a free state, and divide the Mexican Cession into two territories – Utah and New Mexico. The slavery issue in these states was do be decided by popular sovereignty. The compromise also proved for a Fugitive Slave Law, and banned the slave trade in the District of Columbia. The Fugitive Slave Law, which was part of the compromise, also caused a lot of controversy. The main purpose of the law was to allow the capture and return of slaves that escaped into the northern states back to their original owners.Special commissioners were authorized to arrest the escapees. Even if the captured person was a free black, they were still denied the right of a fair trial. Anyone who opposed the arrest of a slave was to be punished. The Southerners were not entirely favorable to the law, because they were forced to loose California. The North also reacted negatively to the enforcement of the new law. Many people like Ralph Waldo Emerson said that the Fugitive Slave Law was in a way contradictory to the Constitution itself. He said that it is considered a crime to enslave a man in Africa, while it is also â€Å"high crime and misdemeanor, punishable with fine and imprisonment, to resist the reenslaving a man on the coast of America† (Emerson).Another example of this would be the President James Buchanan's fourth annual message to congress. Buchanan did not want the southern sta tes to secede. However he did not want to use armed forces to stop them either. Buchanan argued that the Congress had no power to stop a state from withdrawing from the union. He said â€Å"that no such power has been delegated to congress† (Buchanan). The Kansas-Nebraska bill was another good example. The bill proposed that the Nebraska territory was to be divided into Kansas and Nebraska territories. The settlers would then decide whether slavery should be allowed. Southern slave owners favored this bill because it removed the boundaries set by the Missouri Compromise.The southerners were  in a way â€Å"forcing slavery down the throat of the freesoliers† in Kansas. The law outraged northern Democrats, and this created even more tension. Though not the only reason, disputes over the meaning of the Constitution played a big role leading up to the Civil War. What was once established to unite the nation now lead to its separation.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Love Love, Intimacy, And Commitment - 2423 Words

Question 1: Robert Sternberg defined three different, but related, elements of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment. One of the three aspects is passion. Whether it be through physical or through emotional means, passion is the euphoric sensation driven by lust. Another aspect of love is intimacy. Intimacy is the aptitude for exposing oneself, physically or emotionally, to the other; physically baring oneself can occur via sexual intercourse and emotionally revealing oneself can happen via sharing insecurities or secrets. The third aspect of love is commitment. This is defined as loyalty and the result of persistent decisions to stay together. The aspect of commitment is more prevalent as relationships develop and less likely to be present in newer ones. The presence and absence of the different combinations of these three aspects contributes to the existence of seven different forms of love. One of the forms of love is infatuation. This love is more probable to at the beginning o f a relationship because the only aspect involved is passion, which is promoted by lust and initial impressions. Intimacy and commitment have not yet developed because those aspects usually take time to come about. Another one of Sternberg’s seven forms is that of companionate love. This type involves the presence of both intimacy and commitment, but not passion. Companionate love is presumably more common as relationships develop and persist through time. For example, passion sometimes declinesShow MoreRelatedThe Three Dimensions Of Love Include Passion, Intimacy, And Commitment2625 Words   |  11 Pages2015 Final Term Paper Question #1: Sternberg’s three dimensions of love include passion, intimacy, and commitment. Passion is described by Sternberg as an intense physical and emotional feeling characterized by excitement and euphoria which in turn activate hormones and neurons in the body and mind. Intimacy is described as the feeling of closeness and connectedness in addition to sharing secrets and nakedness. Lastly, commitment ties the other two dimensions and is described as mutual caregivingRead MoreTriangulation Theory Of Love Essay870 Words   |  4 PagesLove works at different stages of life, whether it is romantic love or long term love. This can be the difference between two people who experience ultimate happiness together and or the contentment of settling. Sternberg’s triangulation theory of love helps to explain the different stages of love through three elements which include; intimacy, passion and commitment (Donges,2017) Romantic love is a mixture of intimacy and passion. Intimacy is an imitate act or sexual activity with another personRead MoreThe Building Blocks Of A Lasting Love1153 Words   |  5 PagesThe Building Blocks of a Lasting Love Romantic love is a very mysterious and profound emotion, in which many people can not sustain. There are three main components of a lasting romance: passion, commitment and lust. â€Å"A strong dose of all three components [of love] typifies, for many of us, an ideal relationship† (Triangular Theory of Love). If an appropriate balance is maintained a relationship can reach nirvana, referred to as consummate love. Intimacy creates a deep emotional bond due to a hormoneRead More Two Kinds of Love in Movie Casablanca Essay1116 Words   |  5 PagesTwo Kinds of Love in Movie Casablanca In the movie Casablanca, directed by Michael Curtiz, two different kinds of love are exposed. The love relationship between Ilsa Lund and Rick is a more passionate relationship while the one between Ilsa and Victor Laszlo is more intimate. Love is composed of different feelings and because of that it can be expressed, as seen in Casablanca, in different ways. â€Å"The Intimate Relationship Mind†, a text by Garth J. O. Fletcher and Megan Stenswick, helpsRead More2. Assignment: Attachment Style and Relationships Essay1364 Words   |  6 Pagestriangular theory of love based on three dimensions: passion, intimacy, and commitment. The degree to which a relationship demonstrates these three dimensions determines the type of love relationship. People begin love relationships with those who care for them as children. These early relationships can have a great effect on their adult relationships. †¢ Write a 350- to 700-word response summarizing the three dimensions of love and how they interrelate to identify a specific type of love relationshipRead MoreEssay on Stark P M4 A2739 Words   |  3 Pagestriangular theory of love Robert Sternberg’s theory of love is best explained in the context of interpersonal relationships. An interpersonal relationship can be defined as two or more people who have a strong, deep or close association. The three components Sternberg uses are intimacy, passion and commitment. His theory uses 6 manifestations which are combinations of the three components. This covers a variety of different kinds of relationships in human kind. Sternberg’s theory of love has several combinationsRead MoreMeasures of Love in Society - Psychology1020 Words   |  5 PagesMeasures of Love in Society Love is an unbreakable bond that keeps a drive of compassion in all of our hearts. Love is a necessity, and while it may also be considered a luxury, sometimes it is overlooked, or written off as impracticable. Everyone seeks the feeling and situation to love and be loved in return. This is a topic of controversy all over the world and throughout every relationship. The topic lends itself to many social psychological phenomena. The argument of what love might be isRead MoreAttachment Styles1372 Words   |  6 PagesAttachment Style and Relationships PSY 220 Part I: Robert Sternberg created his triangular theory of love based on three dimensions: passion, intimacy, and commitment. The degree to which a relationship demonstrates these three dimensions determines the type of love relationship. People begin love relationships with those who care for them as children. These early relationships can have a great effect on their adult relationships. Passion reflects attraction, romance, and sexual desire. A relationshipRead MorePsy 220 Week 2 Assignment Essay1122 Words   |  5 Pages | Part 1 Sternbergs Theory of Love describes three components that make up different combinations or levels of love that can be shared between two people. The three components are intimacy, passion, and commitment. Intimacy refers to understanding and concern for the other person. This component deals with warm affection and getting to know each other on a deeper level. PassionRead MoreThe Perils Of Intimacy And The Passionate Shepherd To His Love1735 Words   |  7 Pagesand linguistic techniques how love is presented in â€Å"The Perils Of Intimacy† and â€Å"The Passionate Shepherd To His Love† Written in two completely different time periods, both texts clearly address the theme of love and the connotations surrounding it in mainly two diverse ways. â€Å"The Passionate Shepherd To His Love† arguably has the main theme of male dominance, which is ultimately prominent throughout the poem, and how gender ultimately feeds into the experience of love. Composed in the 16th century